Kamis, 09 September 2010

Penatalaksanaan Kejang

Tujuan pengelolaan kejang :
1.    Menjamin oksigenasi jaringan otak, serta fungsi jantung dan paru.
2.    Mengatasi kejang secepat mungkin dan mencegah berulangnya kejang.
3.    Memperbaiki gangguan metabolisme dan keseimbangan air dan elektrolit.
4.    Mencegah komplikasi sistemik.
5.    Mengenal dan mengobati penyebab naiknya suhu.

Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut di atas maka langkah pertolongan yang dilakukan adalah :
1.    Mengatasi dan mencegah berulangnya kejang. Semua anak yang dalam keadaan kejang pada saat pemeriksaan, apapun penyebabnya, obat pilihan adalah diazepam, baik secara perenteral ataupun perrektal.
2.    Perawatan umum
Sementara mengatasi kejang, diberi pertolongan untuk memperbaiki dan menjamin oksigenasi otak dengan jalan:
a.    Memberikan oksigen
b.    Melonggarkan pakaian ketat
c.    Membersihkan jalan nafas, menghisap cairan dari rongga mulut dan saluran pernafasan
d.    Anak diletakkan dalam posisi semi trendelenberg
e.    Untuk mencegah aspirasi sebaiknya posisi kepala anak dimiringkan
f.     Menurunkan suhu bila panas dengan cara :
-  Meniupkan udara dingin
-  Mendinginkan udara sekitarnya
-  Kompres dengan es atau alkohol
-  Antipiretik : parasetamol 30–50 mg/kgBB/hari dibagi dalam 3 dosis atau Asetosal 60 mg/tahun umur/kali, 3 kali perhari

3.    Bila kejang lebih dari 30 menit, maka untuk mengatasi edema otak yang dapat terjadi diberikan kortikosteroid: Deksametason 0,2-0,3 mg/kgBB/kali, 3 kali sehari, lama pemberian 4–5 hari. Bila ada tanda herniasi: pernafasan tidak teratur, bradipnoe, kesadaran makin menurun, diberikan manitol 20% dengan dosis 0,25–1 gram/kgBB/kali intravena. Diberikan dalam waktu ½ jam dapat diulang tiap 8 jam. Berikan cairan dengan kadar natrium yang rendah yaitu cairan 2 : 1 dan jumlah cairan pada hari pertama 70% dari kebutuhan maintenance. Kalau tidak tersedia manitol dapat juga diberikan gliserol 10% dengan dosis 0,5–1 gram/kgBB/hari peroral diberikan 4 dosis.
4.    Mencari dan mengobati penyebab panas.

5 komentar:

  1. "Those people are very competent and capable, and can anonymise their activity."However, the number of hits the team's website gets from countries such as India, Nigeria, Malaysia and the Philippines suggests scammers are taking notice of ray ban aviators sale their work.A scammer can sell even the smallest bit of personal data, earning perhaps 50 cents to confirm an email address is active. But gaining access to an email account is the jackpot - potentially Ray Ban Clubmaster giving scammers credit card and bank details, plane tickets, passport details and more, Demetriou says."It's a wholesale ray bans sunglasses whole dark economy that drives this kind of activity. Any piece of information about an individual ray ban caravan sunglasses has a value on the dark internet.

  2. Word from some Google employees is that "heads up display" glasses are just around the corner. Sporting Oakley twoface sunglasses the look of Oakley sunglasses, the new gadget will boast a tiny screen in the lens. 9to5 Google, a website devoted to news about Google, suggests what product might do: "A user can walk around with information popping up and into Oakley x squared sunglasses display…based on preferences, location, and Google's information." You'll control things like scrolling and clicking by tilting your head, which may mean the device looks cool, but you look a little strange using it.This is was the reincarnation of the wayfarer design oakley lenses which was liked by people all across the world. Though Hugo Boss had its own share of failures and successes, it remains to be oakley eyeglasses a popular brand in the 20th century. While smiling, the frames should not move from the bridge of your nose or touch your cheeks. The fully rimmed designer glasses are generally considered to be more durable than other pairs. Since years sun glasses have become an essential style accessory for both fashion and health point of view.
    This is because salt water can separate the laminated fake oakleys layers of plastic that make up most polarized lenses. You should clean smudges and streaks with a lens cloth, (either by itself or with a cleaning solution), and replace the lens cloth about twice a year for best results.There are several oakley outlet reasons why a certain individual wears a sunglass. It is not just an object for fashion. Sunglasses offer a lot of good advantages to everyone.Since the eyes are the most sensitive and the most precious part that we have, it is oakley store just right to protect it against any harms. UV rays of the sun are the most dangerous ground of eye damages. If we exposed our eyes too much with intense sunlight, it will cause soreness, irritation and inflammation. In some cases, oakley sunglasses if the damage is substantial, it even causes cancer in the eye. Sunglasses are the perfect protection. Most sunglasses are designed for UV rays protection. It simply serves as an effective cover to the eye.
    James Kinney has become an institution cheap oakleys onto himself not only because of what he does but also because of who he is.

  3. Brillhart said he’s able to offer such deals for a few reasons. First, the company spends little oakley outlet money on marketing as the majority of his sales are due to word-of-mouth from satisfied customers. Second, there is no overhead. There are two men behind the glasses: the manufacturer, who makes the frames in Osaka, Japan, and Brillhart, the creator. "The Long Beach Fire Department was a great market," said Brillhart. "The problem is, they don't order more oakley sunglasses because the glasses never break! "Most often when we go to war/battle or as a SWAT Officer to the JOB, we consider which protective gear we need - and we often start with the really heavy stuff and go lighter as we dress/decide what to wear/how to dress for the op, and or scenario.It's pretty obvious that one of oakley eyeglasses the Most Important aspects of working in the tactical arena and operating in this intense environment is Seeing what/who we’re fighting – or who we’re going after, as well as any obstacles in the way. So our EYE-PROTECTION should be a pretty important aspect.
    Inside the zipper-pack, are Three lenses. Clear Lens, Solar Lens (dark colored for use outdoors/sun oakley si protection)and Low-Light Lens (Yellow ). A few other interesting items can be found in the zipper-pouch, head strap, cleaning cloth, each lens comes with a fitted nose-piece. What a great idea. You don’t have to remove it when you replace colored lenses for different applications.An extremely impressive quality of this lens; is it’s High Impact Resistance capability. When the oakley military eyepiece was struck by 12gauge #6 pellets at 32 feet, the rds did not penetrate. On several different tests, the rds impacted the lens and caused exterior damage, However, there were no penetrations. Now I’m not going to allow myself to be shot while wearing protective glasses, nor do I promote it, just because they are capable of stopping oakley jupiter squared the rd. However, knowing that the eyewear in front of my eyes is capable of stopping 12gauge rds from penetrating,

  4. The Bag to Save a Life online auction is part of the No Child Born to christian louboutin sale Die campaign to stop the deaths of more than eight million children in some of the world's poorest countries every year.The online auction is christian louboutin outlet live from tomorrow and will close on Sunday December 4th. Visit www.savethechildren.org.uk/bagtosave to place a bid.Christina Aguilera wore a tight dress at the American red sole shoes Music Awards on Sunday night (20.11.11), which has sparked pregnancy rumours.The singer performed 'Moves Like Jagger' with Maroon 5 frontman Adam Levine - who christian louboutin store sits on the judging panel of TV talent show 'The Voice' with the blonde beauty - at the ceremony at the Nokia Theatre in louboutin shoes Los Angeles, which led to a number of comments on blogs and social networking site twitter.
    The Misshapes DJ’d the cocktail party at Barneys christian louboutin sale and spent a few minutes before the dinner began shuffling place cards around so as to be nearer to each other. “We kind of Red Bottom Shoes have the same bangs,” Leigh Lezark noted of Greg Krelenstein’s haircut, adjusting his fringe. “But you did it after mine.”Jean Pigozzi sat on the christian louboutin same side of the table as Louboutin and was wearing a button-down shirt covered with cartoon lions, monkeys and bears under a hooded sweatshirt. christian louboutin 2016 This was fitting, as he freely discussed his collection of African art. “It’s the biggest in the world,” Pigozzi explained, “Without a doubt.” Later christian louboutin he reflected on New York’s art scene in the christian louboutin shoes Seventies. “Oh, I knew those guys, Basquiat, Andy Warhol, I never knew what a genius he was. You couldn’t. We used to go to Studio 54 together. It was hard for him in the beginning. He used to hustle these little old Asian ladies around http://www.christianlouboutinsaleflagshipstore.com the Factory to buy his paintings for $5. They didn’t sell, really, most of them. And now…now! I remember once I came to the louboutin outlet studio and saw him painting. He wrote about it in his book, it says, ‘I’m so happy Jean Pigozzi saw me paint.’”